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Kamis, 09 Februari 2012




A1D3 08 121



1.1 Background
            Life in the information age is characterized by the swift flow of information to the advances in science and technology. In order to excel in life, the ability to absorb a variety of information is vital. One of the capabilities in question is the ability to read. Reading ability is needed to absorb the growing flood of information writing.
            The importance of reading for life has been long recognized. This is particularly felt by the students. Success in reading is very important for students in order to develop academic skills, expertise, and intelligence (Carnine, Silbert, and Kameenui, 1990). Without reading skills, excellence in schools will not be achieved (Anderson, Heibert, Scott, and Wilkinson, 1985). Therefore, to improve the success of students academic achievement, the need for serious efforts for the development of reading skills.
            Because reading is very important in life, increased efforts need to be considered along with the ability to read, either by the school, government, and society. Improved reading ability can not be separated from efforts to develop interest in reading. Interest in reading is one factor that greatly affects a person's ability to read.
            Based on the literature of study conducted by the writers that the people of Indonesia don’t have a dependency on reading as a learning process. Some research has been done, for example by the IEA (1992) and PISA (2003) demonstrated the reading ability and students' appreciation of the act of reading is still low (Damaianti, 2005: 2). The issue of low reading ability of Indonesian society has evolved since long. It is, indeed not the only issue, but it is supported by the evidence the results of international research institutions engaged in the study of reading.
            The results of studies in the literature about the low reading skills at SMPN 3 Kendari are corroborated by the results of observations and interviews predecessors in the field. The problems faced by students in the field in reading activities were complex, ranging from the introduction of these letters, understanding vocabulary, terminology, introduction of structural readings, and interpretations of the readings. From the results of preliminary observations in the field, the ability of students in reading is still low.
            Based on the observation of the writer in the field, found the problems by students on reading skills. Problems are found not only reading comprehension ability (cognition capabilities) alone, visual abilities (average speed of reading) had been a problem for students at SMPN 3 Kendari. According to the observation of the reading comprehension of the most difficult experienced by students is the ability of reading comprehension on aspects of analysis, while the difficulties experienced by students in the visual capabilities include an average read speed is very low.
            In addition, teachers also have difficulty in applying learning strategies. Furthermore, to the problem above, Mr. La Ode Poni (2012) as an English teacher of SMPN 3 Kendari also said that, the reading interests of students classified as low, this is seen students are toll to read, not with a Unison Scramble to get started, even throwing that in finally did have to be appointed by the teacher, it was lazy. Moreover, students are not able to reconstruct the structure and meaning of the idea that it receives. Reading ability of students to find the main idea of ​​each paragraph and theme of a discourse is still quite low. Motivated by findings in the field of problem students' reading skills are still low on students SMPN 3 Kendari, a problem in this study focused on the problem and efforts to increase reading skills using appropriate learning strategies.
            A problem faced by students in learning to read is caused by several factors, among which the teacher is less creative and innovative in teaching and learning process. Learning to read is taught enough in the traditional way only. In fact, the role of teachers is expected at all in helping students understand a reading text. Weaver (1988: 15) expressed the opinion about learning to read, learning to read means that 1) learning to say the words, 2) learn to identify words and comprehend meaning, and 3) learning to bring meaning into the text to gain meaning from text.
            Reading is a complex activity. Because reading is a complex activity, then the teaching process also included a complex process as well. Similar disclosed by Otto et al. (1974: 4) that "The reading process is so complex that to try to tackle it all at one time, for teaching purposes-is Almost Certain to lead only to frustration and confusion".
            To overcome the complexities of reading and learning problems, the experts have attempted to apply various learning strategies. Since the 1970s researches on reading activities have been carried out as a solution to overcome the problem of why some children can not read. Starting from the bottom-up approach and top down (Brown, 1994: 283), up to today's rapidly developing various models of learning to read among other methods Concentrated Language Encounter (CLE)   
            CLE is a methods of learning which has four main principles: 1) CLE is a method that engages students in speaking activities related to new activities in groups, 2) learning with CLE is tiered (scaffolding). What was expected to be done by the students were given examples in advance by the teacher, then the example and guidance of teachers reduced little by little, if students are increasingly able to do and choose for themselves what they will do; 3) any experience of language learning is any activity undertaken . What is said or written is associated with what is happening in their environment and 4) students learn language through their minds and be able to communicate in speech and writing.
            This methods was first applied in remote places in Australia which is intended for the education of Aboriginal children in 1980. Later, this model is applied in Thailand by Richard Walker, Rotarians Saowalak Rattanavich and Noraseth Pathmanand. In Thailand, CLE methods showed effectiveness in a relatively short time.
            In  CLE teaching, teachers are expected to patiently guide students develop the ability to express something, increase confidence, creative thinking, receptive to ideas and opinions of friends or others, and able to work in groups. In addition, teachers also face the patience required of students who lack confidence. Teachers should encourage students to get involved, though at first, students did not engage in group activities (Nusyirwan, 2003).
Socialization CLE methods in Indonesia for the first time held in a seminar held in Bandung on 28 September 2002. Then, the CLE methods are implemented in five elementary schools in Bandung as a pilot project. During this time, in Indonesia the effectiveness of CLE in learning has never been tested for junior high students.
            The reasons of CLE methods selection in this study because the author is very interested in the advantages in terms of orientation, learning methods, application and impact of instructional and concomitant effects of this. The advantages of are 1) to develop students 'ability to express something, either oral or written, 2) increase confidence in the students' social interaction with teachers and students, 3) direct the students to think creatively, 4) train students to receive ideas and opinion of his friends or others, 5) learning in stages, from the simple to the difficult thing in accordance with students' abilities.
            The advantages and success of the CLE method that has been implemented in several countries such as has been stated above, so as to encourage researchers to improve the effectiveness of the method of teaching reading CLE in the English language, the writer choose a title "Improving students' reading ability Using Concentrated Language Encounter (CLE ) methods (Study Experiments at the Seventh Grade of SMP Negeri 3 Kendari) ".



Carnine, Silbert, and Kameenui. 1990 . Becoming a Nation of    Readers: The Report of     the       Commission on Reading. Washington: The National  Institute of  Education.
Hardianto, D. and Damaianti, 2005. The study of student interest in reading science            education faculty Quranic Media Union Library: Bandung.
Nusyirwan. 2003. A Research Report on the Development of Lalnguage through the           Contentrated Language Encounter (CLE) Project, Jakarta.  
-----------------. 2006. Concentrated Language Encounter Teaching: Strategies towards                    Literacy Development for All. (2ndedition).Bangkok: Wichai Printing.
Otto , et al. 1974. English Teaching Reading Process. Perum Balai Pustaka. CV. Surabaya
Sumadi. 1987. Reading Interest and Talent Relations with Achievement Reading     Comprehension Language. Thesis Not Published. Malang: IKIP Malang.
Walker, R, Rattanavich, S, & Oller, J. 1992. Teaching all the children to read:        Concentrated language encounter techniques. Buckingham: The Open University          Press.
Weaver. 1988. Research Methods in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University           Press.

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